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In the United States the field is usually called law and society studies; in Europe it is more often referred to as socio-legal studies. At first, jurists and legal philosophers were suspicious of sociology of law. Civil law jurisdictions treat contracts differently in a number of respects, with a more interventionist role for the state in both the formation and enforcement of contracts. They also do not require consideration for a contract to be binding.

She teaches Introduction to Indonesian Law; Contract Law; Act against the Law courses. Her research interests include business law, contract, and Indonesian tort law. She earned her Bachelor of Law, Master of Law, and Doctor of Law from Universitas Pelita Harapan. Civil law jurisdictions recognise custom as “the other source of law”; hence, scholars tend to divide the civil law into the broad categories of “written law” or legislation, and “unwritten law” (ius non-scriptum) or …